SUMO Manhattan Mobility with Single and Multi hop

Introduction

The Manhattan mobility in SUMO features a grid topology as shown below. It is composed of a number of horizontal and vertical streets. Each street has two lanes for each direction (North and South direction for vertical streets, East and West for horizontal streets). The mobile node is allowed to move along the grid of horizontal and vertical streets. At an intersection of a horizontal and a vertical street, the mobile node can turn left, right or go straight with certain probability.

Figure 4‑14: Manhattan mobility in SUMO features a grid topology

Case 1: Manhattan mobility Single-hop RSU to vehicles

Objective

To create, using SUMO, a Manhattan Road network in which vehicles drive randomly, and to have a Roadside unit (RSU) which sends safety messages continuously to vehicles. The network performance is analyzed for different environments each having different RF channel characteristics.

Procedure

Open NetSim and Select Examples > VANETs > SUMO Manhattan mobility > Single hop communication then click on the tile in the middle panel to load the example as shown in below screenshot

Graphical user interface, application Description automatically generated

Figure 4‑15: List of scenarios for the example of Single hop communication

The NetSim UI would display as shown below.

Figure 4‑16: Network set up for studying the Single hop communication

Settings done for this sample experiment.

  1. Applications set as CBR (Broadcast application)

Application

Method

Application

Type

Application Name Source ID Destination ID Packet Size (Bytes) Inter-Arrival Time (µs)
Broadcast CBR

APP_1_CBR_

Broadcast

21 Broadcast to all 20 vehicles 300 2,000,000

Table 4‑5: CBR Applications Settings

  1. Transport protocol set as UDP in application Configuring window.

  2. Adhoc link/Wireless link properties were set as follows:

Channel characteristics Pathloss Model Pathloss Exponent
Pathloss Only Log Distance 2.5

Table 4‑6: Wireless link properties

  1. Co-ordinates of RSU are set as X = 834.62, and Y = 133.85.

  2. Set transmitter power to 40mW under INTERFACE_1(Wireless) > Physical layer properties of Vehicles and RSU.

  3. Plots and packet trace are enabled and run simulation and observe the movement of the vehicles in the packet animation window.

  4. In NetSim packet animation window, you can see that vehicles choose random directions when they reach a junction in the Manhattan grid network.

  5. Increase the pathloss exponent (in the order 2.5, 3, 3.5, 4) and note down the aggregate throughput and packets received for different application generation rates.

Figure 4‑17: Animation Window for NetSim

With play and record animation enabled, same can be observed in SUMO as follows:

Figure 4‑18: Animation Window for Sumo

Results and Observations

For sample RSU Broadcast Data Rate = 1.2 Kbps (Packet size = 300 bytes, IAT = 2,000,000µs. This means packets of size 300 Bytes are sent every 2 seconds).

Environment Path-loss Exponent

Packets Received

(Aggregate)*

Throughput (Kbps)

(Aggregate)

Open Rural Area 2.5 198 4.752
Urban Area 3 59 1.41
Dense Urban Area 3.5 14 0.33
Very Dense Urban Area with Shadowing 4 2 0.048

Table 4‑7: Results Comparison for RSU Broadcast Data Rate = 1.2 Kbps

* Aggregate is the sum of the packet/throughputs obtained by all applications.

For sample RSU Broadcast Data Rate = 2.4 Kbps (Packet size =300 Bytes, IAT = 1,000,000µs or 1 seconds. This means packets of size 300 Bytes are sent every second)

Environment Path-loss Exponent

Packets Received

(Aggregate)

Throughput (Kbps)

(Aggregate)

Open Rural Area 2.5 397 9.528
Urban Area 3 119 2.856
Dense Urban Area 3.5 26 0.624
Very Dense Urban Area with Shadowing 4 4 0.096

Table 4‑8: Results Comparison for RSU Broadcast Data Rate = 2.4 Kbps

For sample RSU Broadcast Data Rate = 9.6 Kbps (Packet size =300Bytes, IAT =250,000µs or 0.25 seconds. This means four packets of size 300 Bytes are sent every second)

Environment Path-loss Exponent

Packets Received

(Aggregate)

Throughput (Kbps)

(Aggregate)

Open Rural Area 2.5 1593 38.232
Urban Area 3 482 11.56
Dense Urban Area 3.5 102 2.448
Very Dense Urban Area with Shadowing 4 16 0.384

Table 4‑9: Results Comparison for RSU Broadcast Data Rate = 9.6 Kbps

Figure 4‑19: Plot of Throughput vs. Pathloss Exponent for different RSU broadcast for different DR (Data Rates)

Case 2: Manhattan mobility Multi-hop Vehicles to RSU

Objective

To create, using SUMO, a Manhattan Road network in which vehicles drive randomly, and to have a Roadside unit (RSU) to which vehicles continuously send unicast traffic via multi-hop (hopping via other vehicles if the RSU is beyond communication range). The network performance is analyzed for different vehicle counts.

Procedure

Open NetSim and Select Examples > VANETs > SUMO Manhattan mobility > Multi hop communication then click on the tile in the middle panel to load the example

Figure 4‑20: List of scenarios for the example of Multi hop communication

The NetSim UI would display as shown below.

Figure 4‑21: Network set up for studying the Multi hop communication

Settings done for this sample experiment.

  1. Applications set as CBR.

Application

Method

Application

Type

Source_Id Destination_Id

Packet size

(Bytes)

Inter-Arrival Time (µs)
Unicast CBR (All vehicles) RSU 1460 20,000

Table 4‑10: CBR Applications settings

  1. In Vehicle General Properties, under SUMO file manhattan.sumo.cfg file was selected from the Docs folder of NetSim Install Directory \< C:\Program Files\NetSim Standard\Docs\Sample_Configuration\VANET\SUMO-Manhattan-mobility-Single-hop-and-Multi-hop\Multi-hop-communication>

Figure 4‑22: General Properties window

  1. Transport protocol set as UDP in application Configuration window.

  2. Adhoc link/ Wireless link properties set as follows:

Channel Characteristics Pathloss Model Pathloss Exponent
Pathloss Only Log Distance 2.5

Figure 4‑23: Wireless link properties

  1. Co-ordinates of RSU are set as X = 450, and Y = 450

  2. Network layer routing protocol is set as DSR.

  3. Set transmitter power to 40mW under INTERFACE_1(Wireless) > Physical layer properties of Vehicles and RSU.

  4. Plots are enabled and run the simulation.

  5. Increase the number of vehicles in the order 10, 20, 30 etc. and note down the aggregate throughput.

Result:

Number of vehicles

Throughput (Kbps)

(Aggregate)*

10 1.1826
20 0.5405
30 0.6668
40 1.1857
50 1.0780
60 0.9119
70 0.5720

Table 4‑11: Results Comparison

*Aggregate is the sum of the packet/throughputs obtained by all applications.

Figure 4‑24: Aggregate Throughput vs. Number of Vehicles